History

Origins and Significance

The proposed Douglaston Hill Historic District, located in northeastern Queens (a borough of New York City) near the border with Nassau County, is significant in the area of community planning and development and as an example of a turn-of-the-century suburb. The district consists of substantial single-family homes, multi-family apartment buildings, commercial buildings, a small park and a church and cemetery. It is architecturally noteworthy for its many fine examples of late nineteenth and early twentieth century styles including Colonial Revival, Queen Anne, Shingle Style, Tudor Revival, Prairie Style and American Craftsman designs.

In its park-like setting, architectural expression and social history, Douglaston Hill is representative of the evolution of the commuter suburb. Within that context, the Hill, which developed over a period of eighty years, can be interpreted both as a precursor to the planned suburban enclaves of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (such as the adjacent Douglas Manor and the renowned Forest Hills Gardens) and as evidence of the speculative suburban development which remade the borough of Queens in the 1920s and 1930s.

The transformation of Queens from colonial villages to estates and small farms to commuter suburbs is typical of American settlement patterns in many parts of the country. The dramatic spatial change that this pattern of growth brought about -- and the parallel development of a quintessential American lifestyle -- were due to several factors. Rapid advances in transportation, particularly the steam railroad in the first half of the nineteenth century, made long-distance commuting possible. New levels of personal wealth following the Civil War, coupled with the pervasive cultural values of mainstream Victorian society, gave rise to a middle class that embraced virtues of domesticity, home ownership and life in a sylvan setting.1   These values were made manifest in the commuter suburb, a distinct form of community building which places the single-family house in a non-urban setting, convenient to the city by rail.

By 1939 the Federal Writers' Project New York City Guide had designated Queens the "borough of homes," a result of some fifty years of intensive speculative, mostly suburban, housing development.2    This development had its roots in planned developments of the 1870s and was greatly accelerated by the consolidation of New York City in 1898 -- specifically by the public transportation improvements, large-scale middle-class migration and public works it brought to the new Borough of Queens.3

Within the boundaries of Douglaston Hill today, this history of community planning and development, from the 1850s to the 1930s, can be read in the district's topography, layout, architectural expression and historic street names. The boundaries of the proposed Historic District encompass that section of the Hill which retains a relatively high level of integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and association.

Regional Development

By the mid-1600s, several English and Dutch colonial towns had been established in what is now northeastern Queens. The settlers farmed and raised livestock in and around Mespat (Maspeth), founded in 1642, Vlissingen (Flushing), founded in 1643, and Jamaica, founded in 1650.4    Colonial settlement along the northeastern shore began near Alley Pond in 1647, and a decade later when, in 1656, the Dutch assigned to Thomas Hicks a peninsula then called "Little Madman's Neck," which encompassed much of present-day Douglaston. Hicks is best remembered for his "eviction" of the Matinecoc Indian tribe from its fishing grounds on Little Neck Bay in the 1660s.5

By 1683, when Queens County was established as one of ten English counties, these colonial settlements were thriving villages. The county was then divided into five "towns": Newtown, Jamaica, Flushing, Hempstead, and Oyster Bay.6    The Alley Pond settlement (including present-day Douglaston lay within the town of Flushing. Farming was the primary use of the land, with a few large families the predominant property owners. The years prior to the Revolutionary War saw more estates built in the area, including the Cornelius Van Wyck House of 1735 (located within today's Douglas Manor and a designated New York City Landmark).

Most residents of Queens were loyal to the British throughout the Revolution. Consequently, the county was under British occupation for seven years, serving as a major staging ground for British troops; and after the war, as a staging ground for the evacuation of loyalists. By the war's end in 1783, the county's once extensive tracts of primeval forest had been devastated and many farms pillaged by British soldiers.7

Recovery and growth were slow in the first half of the nineteenth century, but transportation improvements led the way for future settlements. Six turnpikes were built in the 1810s, improving farmers' access to urban markets, and the Long Island Railroad began running from Brooklyn to Jamaica, Queens in 1836. The 1850s and 1860s saw large numbers of working class German and Irish immigrants settle in the industrial sections of western Queens; at the same time the "gold coast" of the north shore began to be a haven for the country homes of wealthy New Yorkers, along the coasts of Ravenswood, Flushing, Bayside and Douglaston, and into present-day Nassau County.

The Civil War catalyzed another wave of development and settlement in the 1860s and 1870s, when a number of large farms were transformed to development sites and whole villages were laid out. Richmond Hill (1869), Long Island City (1872), Bayside (1872) and South Flushing (1873) were all created in this way. In the decades leading up to the 1898 consolidation of the City of New York, most areas of Queens which were accessible were being developed.8

Two major public works were completed in the first decade after consolidation: the Queensborough Bridge opened in 1909; and the Pennsylvania Railroad completed tunnels under the East River in 1910. Rapid access for the masses brought increased industrialization and intensive housing development, and by 1930 the borough's population had quadrupled and the assessed real estate value had multiplied sixfold.9

Origins of Douglaston Hill

In 1813 the peninsula estate on Little Neck Bay passed to prominent New Yorker Wynant Van Zandt III. Van Zandt had been an Alderman of New York City and a Vestryman of Manhattan's Trinity Church before retiring to Little Neck as a gentleman farmer. He built a large mansion in 1819 (which survives as the Douglaston Club, and is a designated New York City Landmark).10   When Van Zandt arrived at Little Neck, there existed a community of gentlemen farmers, small "truck" farmers, merchants, artisans and oystermen. Its center was the Alley Pond settlement, considered in local histories to be the birthplace of Bayside, Douglaston and Little Neck. The narrow roadway that ran along Alley Pond was the primary route from Flushing to points east; thus the first Flushing post office was located at the Alley in the 1820s. The post office, along with a mill (dating to the 1750s), a blacksmith shop and a general store (dating to 1821) became the village common -- from which farm produce and wood were shipped to New York.11

Van Zandt took an active interest in the civic affairs of the community centered around Alley Pond. In 1824, he financed the construction of a causeway across the marsh, creating a more direct and efficient route to Flushing.12   His deepest impression on the Douglaston area was his bequest, made in 1829, of land upon which to build a church and funds with which to build it.

For some years, Van Zandt had driven to Christ Church at Cow Neck (now Manhasset, Long Island), where his brother-in-law served as Rector. At that Rector's transfer out of the Cow Neck parish, Van Zandt conspired to build a church for Little Neck. More than twenty men pledged further funds, and less wealthy members of the community pledged their labor, including a local painter and blacksmith, along with farm boys who made shingles. Zion Episcopal Church was dedicated in 1830 by Bishop William Henry Hobart of the Protestant Episcopal Church of New York. Bloodgood Haviland Cutter, known as the "Long Island Farmer Poet," remembers the church construction as a young boy:

"When the church frame was completed, I remember a great preparation was made to raise the frame…A great many gathered and helped raise our Zion frame…In the evening we had a good old-time feast with great rejoicing for the success in getting up the frame without accident. That was kept up till late at night."

Since its inception, Zion has served in the tradition of the 18th-century New England Meetinghouse, as a center of religious and social activity for a far-flung community of farmers. Land for Zion's cemetery was donated in 1834 and again in 1885. (This original building was destroyed by fire in 1924 and rebuilt shortly thereafter.)13

A few years after the death of Wynant Van Zandt in 1831, the Van Zandt family sold its estate. The waterfront peninsula portion of the property (what was to become Douglas Manor) was sold to George Douglas, described in the deed of sale as a "Gentleman."14   The portion to the south, encompassing what was to become Douglaston Hill, was sold in 1834 to Joseph DeForest. DeForest sold the hill property one year later to Cortland Van Beuren, who sold it in 1843 to local farmer Jeremiah Lambertson. Lambertson held the property intact until 1853, when he laid it out in lots in an urban grid and sold them at auction.

George Douglas held the peninsula property until 1862, when at his death, his son William P. Douglas inherited the estate. In the tradition of gentleman farmer, William was active in local affairs, at Zion Church, as well as in supporting community-wide improvements. During William's tenure, up to the 1906 sale of his estate for subdivision, this rural village began its transformation to suburban enclave.

The transformation began with the subdivision and sale of the Lambertson property in 1853. While little is known of Lambertson, the nature of the sale indicates that he was likely banking on the coming railroad to ensure a successful land venture. The Flushing & Northside Railroad extended to the Village of Flushing in 1854, and as far as Great Neck, presently Nassau County, Long Island, in 1866.15

On February 15, 1853, the Flushing Journal reported that a party of 16 persons arriving by omnibus had purchased the farm of Jeremiah Lambertson, with the intent of building 16 country seats upon it. Property deed records show that title was transferred on July 23 and 27, 1853, from Lambertson to 18 buyers, with most buyers purchasing three and four lots each.16   These lots had been laid out in generous 200' x 200' lots, set amid a street grid within the natural boundaries of the Alley Pond and Udall's Cove marshes. The streets were named for trees, e.g., Pine, Cherry, Poplar, Willow.17   No country seats were built however, and the land remained mostly vacant until the turn of the century.

The Suburban Development Context

Because the Douglaston Hill subdivision was one of the earliest in northeastern Queens (Woodside and Bayside, both earlier stops on the Flushing & Northside Railroad, were not laid out until 1867 and 1872 respectively) its fifty-year evolution from mapped lots to built form provides a window onto how the commuter suburb developed as a physical and psychological manifestation of American middle class values.

While Lambertson created a new locale with his subdivision, it is relatively clear that he did so as a speculator. Nevertheless, one important context for its development was the nascent movement among landscape artisans and architects to create naturalistic compositions of rural residential enclaves connected to the city by rail. The ideas of a new and distinct form of community planning had their origins in the garden city movement of England of the 1820s, wherein the characteristics of rural, domestically-centered preindustrial environments were consciously incorporated into new towns.

These ideas were becoming more widely known around the time of Lambertson's sale.

It is widely held that their first expression in the United States was in the picturesque semi-rural cemeteries created in the 1830s. The popularity of these cemeteries with city dwellers turned them into parks and picnic grounds. Many early suburban residential projects incorporated design elements of the cemeteries, such as contrived naturalistic landscape and street names evoking natural features.18

By mid-century, a group of writers and designers had created a "cult of domesticity," proclaiming the moral virtues of family, home ownership and semi-rural dwelling. Catherine Beecher's widely read Treatise on Domestic Economy (1841), and Andrew Jackson Downing's A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1841), were among the first books to offer house plans, and argue that gardens and home ownership were key to harmonious family life. Widely read, these books were instrumental in formulating the American domestic ideal.19  Consequently, they were influential in the development of the suburb, a phenomenon which architect and scholar Robert A. M. Stern has described as "...a complex embodiment of American aspirations deeply rooted in the national psyche."20   By the 1850s, many of Downing's principles were being expressed in the suburban developments created by his partner Calvert Vaux, architect Alexander Jackson Davis, and landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted.

In 1853, Davis and developer Llewellyn Haskell created Llewellyn Park, New Jersey, the first American suburb. Twelve miles from Manhattan, it was a 350-acre development with a strip of common parkland, curving streets, a consistent architectural expression and a pastoral landscape. Llewellyn Park embodied the essence of what would become the characteristic suburb, but for the fact that it was several miles from a railroad station and thus impractical for all but the very wealthy.21

The creation of Riverside, Illinois -- by developer E. E. Childs and designers Olmsted and Vaux in 1869 -- brought the element of accessible transportation to bear on the suburban ideal. Childs' notion that a rural retreat must be convenient and community-oriented resulted in the creation of a town center around the railroad station, establishing the basic premise of suburban enclaves. Riverside incorporated development stipulations to protect its character, especially to ensure "both the town's appearance of affluent spaciousness and a general visual coherence by keeping landscaped areas primary."22  These included stipulations on how a house could be sited, and a minimum lot size of 100' x 200'.

No direct evidence links the subdivision of the Lambertson property in Queens to the emerging ideas about suburban living. Still, the development history and the physical environment in place today reflect period responses to Victorian design principles and social values -- and the budding suburban ideal.

The Lambertson subdivision only slightly interrupted the existing village community's organic growth. The Hill's core development occurred some fifty years later, between 1900 and 1930. Douglaston Hill became a suburban enclave in form, but unlike many later suburban developments, which ensured homogeneity via restrictive covenants, Douglaston Hill maintained its mixed economic and racial composition for many years.

Community Development Context

At the time of the 1853 subdivision, Zion Church was twenty years old. The village at Alley Pond was a shipping and trading hub, its general store providing an immense variety goods "from a needle to an anchor." And the community of oystermen (many of whom were African American) was thriving, with more than a dozen sloops and schooners operating on Little Neck Bay at the foot of Old House Landing Road (now Little Neck Parkway).23

In 1867 the Flushing Railroad reached the Little Neck area, introducing an era of more rapid change. William Douglas donated a farm building from his estate to serve as the railroad station; in exchange, he asked that the station and the village around it be called Douglaston.24   In 1887, Douglas and resident subscribers funded a Queen Anne-style depot building and landscaping at the new Douglaston station. Popular postmaster and gardener Albert Benz directed the landscaping project.25

The arrival of the railroad greatly reduced time to the city, but the trip still required taking a ferry from Long Island City, Queens to Manhattan. Douglaston remained relatively isolated, slowly attracting new residents. In April 1887, just prior to the Hill's key period of growth, the Flushing Journal reported on the community's idyllic setting: "Possessing all of the requisite features which tend to make a place of sojourn acceptable, Douglaston, indeed, is the elysium of restfulness and peace. From the old curbed wells that can be found in the yards of most of the farm houses to the stately trees that line the drives leading to the same -- everything smacks of rural life in its most pleasing form."26

Late nineteenth-century newspaper reports of activities at Zion Church and other civic affairs reveal the gradual introduction of newcomers and new ways of life into that "elysium of restfulness and peace." The death in 1887 of Zion's Rector Rev. Henry M. Beare marked the end of an era. Having served the parish for forty-five years, Rev. Beare was "widely known throughout the state, and in his own parish he was almost worshipped by his flock."27   He was one of only a few Little Neck residents known beyond the immediate community. "Long Island Farmer Poet" Bloodgood Cutter, one of Little Neck's more picturesque citizens, was another -- best known as a friend and travel companion of Mark Twain's.28   By the time of Cutter's death in 1906, new residents -- both permanent and seasonal -- were introducing a more prominent, middle class commuter population into this secluded hamlet community.

In the first decade of the twentieth century, frequent reports by the Flushing newspapers record the comings and goings of seasonal residents as well as house construction for permanent newcomers. These included a bank clerk, a cigar maker, a well-known dentist (whose family resided in Douglaston for two "seasons" before purchasing property), an active suffragette, a composer of popular song, the general manager of Pittsburgh Steel interests in New York, and a prominent Manhattan physician.29

Census records from 1900, 1910 and 1920 show a range of occupational categories for Douglaston Hill -- from professions such as chemist, lawyer, teacher, banker, builder, jeweler, merchant, post office and railroad stationmaster to laborers such as blacksmith, mason, shoemaker, domestic, factory worker and laundress. Several families of African American oystermen are listed in these Census records.

This community of black oystermen had existed in Little Neck, some as property owners, since the 1850s. While their homes were located outside the Lambertson subdivision (most along Orient Avenue near the dock at Old House Landing Road), they contributed to community life. Upon the death of oysterman Jacob Treadwell (1833-1904), the Flushing Daily Times reported "He was a well known character in and about Douglaston, where he has been a life long resident" This community's church on Orient Avenue, St. Peter's African Methodist Episcopal Church, was active for over 100 years: founded in 1872, the church building on Orient Avenue held services until the late 1980s. The Hill's major period of development coincided with the oystermen's decline, following the 1909 condemnation of polluted Little Neck oyster beds.30   While their numbers substantially decreased in the early years of the twentieth century, several ancestors resided in Douglaston for many more years.

The early years of the Hill's development were led by a small group of men, whose actions as realtors, builders and home owners shaped the community both physically and socially. William J. Hamilton, Denis O'Leary, W. R. Griffiths and John Stuart were among the first to begin building within the Hill area, and they were prominent residents during the first decades of the twentieth century.

Between 1890 and 1908 six lots were developed by William and Josephine Hamilton, including their own at 240-35 43rd Avenue (Block 8106/Lot 69). Their undertaking began at the turn of the century, when they bought and sold two of the Hill's original 200' x 200' lots (which had been held by only two owners since 1853). By 1908 William J. Hamilton was recorded as owner and architect/builder for four houses, and was recorded as owner of two others. In his brother's obituary in 1907, Hamilton was described as the "well-known builder of Douglaston."31

Like Hamilton, John Stuart was the architect/builder of record for at least three houses during the Hill's early years, and his building plans were noted in the local newspapers.32   Both Hamilton and Stuart are memorialized by street names in the neighborhood -- Stuart Lane and Hamilton Place, and Stuart's descendants have been active builders/developers into the present day, including current renovation projects currently underway in the Hill.

In 1898 and 1901 Mrs. William J. Hamilton sold two adjacent 200' x 200' lots (numbers 94 and 89, respectively) to Mrs. Denis O'Leary.33   The O'Leary's ultimately shared Lot 94 with the Hamiltons -- nearly identical houses were built in 1901 on the equally divided lot. The O'Leary's subdivided and developed Lot 89, building four houses on four 50' x 200' lots in 1903. Denis and Eleanor O'Leary lived in Douglaston Hill from c. 1901 to c. 1943 (Denis O'Leary died in 1943). Their two daughters remained in Douglaston Hill through the 1950s, living in separate houses across 43rd Avenue from their childhood home.

Denis O'Leary was typical of an early suburban commuter. A prominent attorney and politician, he was active in civic affairs within and outside Douglaston Hill. He served as Assistant Corporation Counsel for New York City, Public Works Commissioner, Queens County District Attorney and U.S. Congressman. Locally, he was a founding officer of the Douglaston Hose Company No. 1, officiating at many of its social functions at Zion Parish Hall, sometimes in the company of New York City Mayor Jimmy Walker. And he was active in numerous charitable and fraternal organizations, including the Shinnecock Democratic Club of Flushing (President), the Flushing Council (President), the Catholic Benevolent Legion, and Holy Name Society of Sacred Heart Church, among others. (Denis O'Leary may have been part of the founding meetings of St. Anastasia Roman Catholic Church, at the home of Otillie and Adolph Helmus at 240-16 43rd Avenue (then Pine Street) in 1915. Masses, baptisms and church meetings were held in this home while the congregation was being officially formed.)

Similarly, attorney W. R. Griffiths was typical of the new resident. Frequently cited by the newspapers as the attorney for real estate transactions within the Douglaston Hill district, Griffiths was committed to civic affairs in and beyond Douglaston. He was an officer of local Republican clubs, such as the Roosevelt & Fairbanks Campaign Club, and devoted many years to the public works of the United Civic Associations of the Borough of Queens. He was a vestryman at Zion, and led several community improvements such as maintenance of the salt meadows and ornamental tree plantings near the train station.34

The development of a community connected to the city at large is also illustrated in the founding and continuity of the Douglaston Art League in 1930, and still active today (now known as the National Art League, located at 44-21 Douglaston Parkway). The League was founded by Mrs. Arthur Sullivan and Miss Helen Chase - sisters and daughters of New York painter William Merritt Chase - along with other residents and north shore artists who were "interested in arousing amore general appreciation of art in the community and in providing a means for practical development of individual talents."35   Architect Aubrey Grantham (Zion Episcopal Church) was among the founders. The League's early exhibits and classes were held in the backroom of a beauty shop and its second show was exhibited in the Parish Hall of Zion Church.

The period from 1900 to 1930 was one of enormous growth for the borough of Queens, and for Douglaston. Writing in 1936, Zion's Rev. Lester Leake Riley remarked on the results of that growth: "By 1910 the old farms are disappearing, the old landmarks fade away, or are hidden behind these Tudor makeshift fronts, the mart of our busy shops and stores. By 1920 our village assumes an air of suburban dignity."36   Approximately 2,000 people lived in Douglaston-Little Neck in 1920. Just ten years later the area's population was 8,000, and Douglaston Hill was fully developed.37

Bibliography

Published Material

  • Federal Writer's Project in New York City. New York City Guide, New York: Random House, 1939.
  • Duncan, Ruth. Douglaston - Little Neck. A history. Queens Borough Public Library Bulletin, No. 647, April 1, 1939.
  • History of Queens County, New York, with Illustrations, Portraits & Sketches. New York: Press of George Macnamara. W.W. Munsell & Co., 1882.
  • Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: the suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
  • ……., ed. Encyclopedia of New York. New Haven: Yales University Press, 1995.
  • Peterson, A. Everett. Landmarks of New York, Bayside Douglaston Little Neck Histoty, with map. Plate No. 34, New York: 1923.
  • Riley, Lester Leake. The Chronicle of Little Neck and Douglaston, Lon Island. Little Neck-Douglaston Division of the Long Island Tercentenary Commemoration of Queens, 1936.
  • Seyfried, Vincent. Queens, A Pictorial History. Norfold, VA: The Donning Company, 1982.
  • Seyfried, Vincent, & William Asadorian. Old Queens, New York. In Early Photographs. New York: Dover Publications, 1991.
  • Shodell, Elly. Cross Currents. (Baymen, Yachtsmen, and Long Island Waters. 1930s-1990s). Port Washington: Public Library, 1993.
  • Stern, Robert A. M. Pride of Place. New York: American Heritage, 1986.
  • Von Skal, George. Illustrated History of the Borough of Queens. New York: F. T. Smiley Publishing Co., NYC, 1908.

Municipal Records

  • Landbooks of the Townships of Flushing, Queens County Registrar's Office, Jamaica, Queens, NY from 1701 to 1936, Grantees and Grantors.
  • Building Department, Queens County, City of New York, Queens Blvd., Kew Gardens, NY, Building Permit Files.
  • Map of athe Village of Marathon, At the Head of Little Neck Bay, Filed July 23, 1853. On file at the Office of the Queens County Registrar's Office, Jamaica, Queens, NY, Volume 23, Pages 30 & 31.

Published Material

  • Federal Writer's Project in New York City. New York City Guide, New York: Random House, 1939.
  • Duncan, Ruth. Douglaston - Little Neck. A history. Queens Borough Public Library Bulletin, No. 647, April 1, 1939.
  • History of Queens County, New York, with Illustrations, Portraits & Sketches. New York: Press of George Macnamara. W.W. Munsell & Co., 1882.
  • Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: the suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
  • ……., ed. Encyclopedia of New York. New Haven: Yales University Press, 1995.
  • Peterson, A. Everett. Landmarks of New York, Bayside Douglaston Little Neck Histoty, with map. Plate No. 34, New York: 1923.
  • Riley, Lester Leake. The Chronicle of Little Neck and Douglaston, Lon Island. Little Neck-Douglaston Division of the Long Island Tercentenary Commemoration of Queens, 1936.
  • Seyfried, Vincent. Queens, A Pictorial History. Norfold, VA: The Donning Company, 1982.
  • Seyfried, Vincent, & William Asadorian. Old Queens, New York. In Early Photographs. New York: Dover Publications, 1991.
  • Shodell, Elly. Cross Currents. (Baymen, Yachtsmen, and Long Island Waters. 1930s-1990s). Port Washington: Public Library, 1993.
  • Stern, Robert A. M. Pride of Place. New York: American Heritage, 1986.
  • Von Skal, George. Illustrated History of the Borough of Queens. New York: F. T. Smiley Publishing Co., NYC, 1908.

Municipal Records

  • Landbooks of the Townships of Flushing, Queens County Registrar's Office, Jamaica, Queens, NY from 1701 to 1936, Grantees and Grantors.
  • Building Department, Queens County, City of New York, Queens Blvd., Kew Gardens, NY, Building Permit Files.
  • Map of athe Village of Marathon, At the Head of Little Neck Bay, Filed July 23, 1853. On file at the Office of the Queens County Registrar's Office, Jamaica, Queens, NY, Volume 23, Pages 30 & 31.

Periodicals

  • ARCHAELOGY. Vol. 32, No. 4, Jul/Aug. 1979, Page 36. Prehistoric Settlement In New York City. Discussion of projectile points found in the Little Neck Bay area.
  • SUNDAY NEWS. 9/15/1974. Douglas Manor Born in Odd Manner, by Thomas Collins.
  • NEW YORK HERALD. April 18, 1901. RECTOR GIVES IN AT LAST TO BISHOP.
  • FLUSHING DAILY TIMES. June 6; July 9,10,11, 1903; January 21; March 3,6; June 16, 1904.
  • FLUSHING JOURNAL. June 18, 1887; June 20, 1903; July 16, 1904.
  • FLUSHING DAILY TIMES. November 10, 1906. Douglaston Woman Very Courageous.
  • LITTLE NECK LEDGER, THE. How Little Neck Got Its Name. August 31, 1989.
  • NEWSDAY. October 20, 1994. Early Settlers Prospered in Little Neck, by Loys Gubernick.
  • Queens COURIER, THE. 10th Anniversary Issue. May 18, 1995, Douglaston, by Jeff Berman.

Maps, Charts and Atlases

  • Atlas of Long Island, New York, Part 2. New York: Deers, Comstock & Cline, 1873.
  • Atlas of Queens County, Plate 29, New York: Chester Wolverton, 1891.
  • Hyde Atlas, Page 21. Village of Marathon, Map 223, updated, 1902.
  • Atlas of the Borough of Queens. E. Belcher Hyde, Brooklyn, NY: 1904.
  • Atlas of City of New York. Borough of Queens. Page 30. Philadelphia, PA: G. W. Bromlye & Co., 1909.

Private Publications

  • A Brief History of Zion Episcopal Church. Douglaston, New York: Zion Episcopal Church, 1992.
  • Bayside Historical Society. The Sylvan Alley, 1989.
  • Douglaston Hose Co. No. 1. Program: Minstrel Entertainment, February 16, 1920.
  • Douglaston Hose Co. No. 1. History of Douglaston Hose Company No. 1. Douglaston, NY: November 30, 1929.
  • Fowler, George C. & Ernestine H. Through the Years in Little Neck and Douglaston. 1963.
  • New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Douglaston Historic District Designation Report, 1997.
  • Reed, Edward. The 50th Anniversary of Douglas Manor, A Brief History. 1956.
  • St. Anastasia R. C. Church. Dinner-Dance Program. Douglaston, NY, November 18, 1988.

Private Periodicals

  • Between Ourselves. Vol. XIV, No.8. August, 1931. Douglaston Club Monthly.
  • Manor Matters. Fall 1989, Page 5. Douglas Manor Association.